Press Release

DBRS Morningstar Assigns Provisional Ratings to PRKCM 2023-AFC2 Trust

June 06, 2023

DBRS, Inc. (DBRS Morningstar) assigned provisional ratings to the following Mortgage-Backed Notes, Series 2023-AFC2 (the Notes) to be issued by PRKCM 2023-AFC2 Trust (the Trust or the Issuer):

-- $195.3 million Class A-1 at AAA (sf)
-- $33.1 million Class A-2 at AA (high) (sf)
-- $38.9 million Class A-3 at A (sf)
-- $17.1 million Class M-1 at BBB (sf)
-- $12.2 million Class B-1 at BB (sf)
-- $10.0 million Class B-2 at B (sf)

Other than the specified classes above, DBRS Morningstar does not rate any other classes in this transaction.

The AAA (sf) rating on the Class A-1 Notes reflects 38.30% of credit enhancement provided by subordinate Notes. The AA (high) (sf), A (sf), BBB (sf), BB (sf), and B (sf) ratings reflect 27.85%, 15.55%, 10.15%, 6.30%, and 3.15% of credit enhancement, respectively.

This transaction is a securitization of a portfolio of fixed- and adjustable-rate, expanded prime and nonprime, first-lien residential mortgages funded by the issuance of the Notes. The Notes are backed by 725 mortgage loans with a total principal balance of $316,571,547 as of the Cut-Off Date (May 1, 2023).

This is the sixth securitization by the Sponsor, Park Capital Management Sponsor LLC, an affiliate of AmWest Funding Corp. (AmWest). AmWest is the Seller, Originator, and Servicer of the mortgage loans.

The pool is about one month seasoned on a weighted-average basis, although seasoning may span from zero to 14 months. All loans in the pool are current as of the Cut-Off Date.

Although the mortgage loans were originated to satisfy the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s (CFPB) Qualified Mortgage (QM) and Ability-to-Repay (ATR) rules where applicable, they were made to borrowers who generally do not qualify for agency, government, or private-label nonagency prime jumbo products for various reasons. In accordance with the QM/ATR rules, approximately 48.4% of the loans are designated as non-QM.

Approximately 50.9% of the loans are made to investors for business purposes and, hence, are not subject to the QM/ATR rules. The mortgage loans were underwritten to program guidelines for business-purpose loans that are designed to rely on the property-level cash flows for approximately 22.8% of the loans, and the mortgagor’s credit profile and debt-to-income ratio, property value, and the available assets, where applicable, for approximately 28.1% of the loans. Since the loans were made to investors for business purposes, they are exempt from the CFPB’s ATR rules and Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act Integrated Disclosure rule.

For investor loans originated to investors under debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) programs (22.8% of the pool), lenders use property-level cash flow or the DSCR to qualify borrowers for income. The DSCR is typically calculated as market rental value (validated by an appraisal report) divided by the principal, interest, taxes, insurance, and association dues.

Also, approximately 16.8% of the pool are residential investor loans underwritten to the property-focused underwriting guidelines. The loans were underwritten to program guidelines for business-purpose loans where the lender generally expects the property (or its value) and the borrower assets to be the primary source of repayment. The lender reviews the mortgagor's credit profile, though it does not rely on the borrower's income to make its credit decision.

In addition, the pool contains nine temporary buydown mortgages loans (approximately 1.57%). The initial 12 or 24 monthly payments made by the borrowers for their respective loans will be less than their scheduled payments due to the Trust, with the difference (for each borrower) compensated from funds held in a related account funded by the seller of the mortgaged property, the mortgage originator, or another party. The funds are not eligible for use to offset potential missed payments; however, if the loans are prepaid in full during the buydown period, then any remaining related funds will be credited to the related borrower.

For this transaction, the Servicer will fund advances of delinquent principal and interest (P&I) until loans become 180 days delinquent or are otherwise deemed unrecoverable. Additionally, the Servicer is obligated to make advances with respect to taxes, insurance premiums, and reasonable costs incurred in the course of servicing and disposing of properties (Servicing Advances). If the Servicer fails in its obligation to make P&I advances, the Master Servicer (Nationstar Mortgage LLC) will be obligated to fund such advances. In addition, if the Master Servicer fails in its obligation to make P&I advances, Citibank, N.A. (rated AA (low) with a Stable trend by DBRS Morningstar), as the Paying Agent, will be obligated to fund such advances. The Master Servicer and Paying Agent are only responsible for P&I advances; the Servicer is responsible for P&I advances and Servicing Advances.

The Sponsor, directly or indirectly through a majority-owned affiliate, is expected to retain an eligible horizontal residual interest consisting of the Class B-3 Notes and Class XS Notes, collectively representing at least 5% of the fair value of the Notes, to satisfy the credit risk-retention requirements under Section 15G of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

On any date on or after the earlier of (1) the payment date occurring in May 2026 or (2) on or after the payment date when the aggregate stated principal balance of the mortgage loans is reduced to less than or equal to 20% of the Cut-Off Date balance, the Sponsor may terminate the Issuer (Optional Termination) by purchasing the loans, any real estate owned (REO) properties, and any other property remaining in the Issuer at the optional termination price, specified in the transaction documents. After such a purchase, the Sponsor will have to complete a qualified liquidation, which requires a complete liquidation of assets within the Trust and the distribution of proceeds to the appropriate holders of regular or residual interests.

The Controlling Holder in the transaction is a majority holder (or majority holders if there is no single majority holder) of the outstanding Class XS Notes, initially, the Seller. The Controlling Holder will have the option, but not the obligation, to repurchase any mortgage loan that becomes 90 or more days delinquent under the Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA) Method (or in the case of any mortgage loan that has been subject to a forbearance plan related to the impact of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, on any date from and after the date on which such loan becomes 90 or more days delinquent under the MBA Method from the end of the forbearance period) at the repurchase price (par plus interest), provided that such repurchases in aggregate do not exceed 10% of the total principal balance as of the Cut-Off Date.

The transaction employs a sequential-pay cash flow structure with a pro rata principal payment among the Class A-1, A-2, and A-3 Notes (senior classes of Notes) subject to certain performance triggers related to cumulative losses or delinquencies exceeding a specified threshold (Credit Event). Also, principal proceeds can be used to cover interest shortfalls on the senior classes of Notes (IIPP) before being applied sequentially to amortize the balances of the Notes. For the Class A-3 Notes (only after a Credit Event) and for the mezzanine and subordinate classes of Notes, principal proceeds can be used to cover interest shortfalls after the more senior tranches are paid in full. Also, the excess spread can be used to cover realized losses first before being allocated to unpaid Cap Carryover Amounts due to Class A-1 down to Class A-3. Of note, the interest and principal otherwise available to pay the Class B-3 Notes’ interest and interest shortfalls may be used to pay the Class A-1, A-2, and A-3 coupons' Cap Carryover Amounts on any payment date.

The transaction assumptions consider DBRS Morningstar’s baseline macroeconomic scenarios for rated sovereign economies, available in its commentary: “Baseline Macroeconomic Scenarios for Rated Sovereigns: April 2023 Update,” dated April 28, 2023. These baseline macroeconomic scenarios replace DBRS Morningstar’s moderate and adverse Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic scenarios, which were first published in April 2020.

The ratings reflect transactional strengths that include the following:

-- Improved underwriting standards,
-- Robust loan attributes and pool composition,
-- Compliance with the ATR rules, and
-- Comprehensive third-party due-diligence review.

The transaction also includes the following challenges:

-- Alternative documentation loans and loans to self-employed borrowers,
-- Nonprime, non-QM, and investor loans,
-- Representations and warranties framework, and
-- The Servicer’s financial capability.

The full description of the strengths, challenges, and mitigating factors is detailed in the related Presale Report.

There were no Environmental/Social/Governance factors that had a significant or relevant effect on the credit analysis.

A description of how DBRS Morningstar considers ESG factors within the DBRS Morningstar analytical framework can be found in the DBRS Morningstar Criteria: Approach to Environmental, Social, and Governance Risk Factors in Credit Ratings at (May 17, 2022).

All figures are in U.S. dollars unless otherwise noted.

The principal methodology applicable to the ratings is RMBS Insight 1.3: U.S. Residential Mortgage-Backed Securities Model and Rating Methodology (March 3, 2023;

Other methodologies referenced in this transaction are listed at the end of this press release.

The DBRS Morningstar Sovereign group releases baseline macroeconomic scenarios for rated sovereigns. DBRS Morningstar analysis considered impacts consistent with the baseline scenarios as set forth in the following report:

The rating was initiated at the request of the rated entity.

The rated entity or its related entities did participate in the rating process for this rating action.

DBRS Morningstar had access to the accounts, management, and other relevant internal documents of the rated entity or its related entities in connection with this rating action.

This is a solicited credit rating.

Please see the related appendix for additional information regarding the sensitivity of assumptions used in the rating process.

The full report providing additional analytical detail is available by clicking on the link under Related Documents below or by contacting us at [email protected].

DBRS, Inc.
140 Broadway, 43rd Floor
New York, NY 10005 USA
Tel. +1 212 806-3277

The rating methodologies used in the analysis of this transaction can be found at:

-- Assessing U.S. RMBS Pools Under the Ability-to-Repay Rules (April 28, 2023),
-- Interest Rate Stresses for U.S. Structured Finance Transactions (August 30, 2022),
-- Third-Party Due-Diligence Criteria for U.S. RMBS Transactions (September 11, 2020),
-- Representations and Warranties Criteria for U.S. RMBS Transactions (May 16, 2023),
-- Legal Criteria for U.S. Structured Finance (December 7, 2022),
-- Operational Risk Assessment for U.S. RMBS Originators (November 23, 2022),
-- Operational Risk Assessment for U.S. RMBS Servicers (November 23, 2022),

For more information on this credit or on this industry, visit or contact us at [email protected].