Press Release

Morningstar DBRS Removes the Under Review with Developing Implications Status and Confirms and Upgrades Provisional Credit Ratings on Certain Tranche Amounts of Manitoulin USD Ltd., Algonquin 2022-4

Structured Credit
March 04, 2024

DBRS, Inc. (Morningstar DBRS) removed the Under Review with Developing Implications status and took the following provisional credit rating actions on the Senior Tranche, Tranche B Amount, Tranche C Amount, and Tranche D Amount (collectively, the Tranche Amounts) of two unexecuted, unfunded financial guarantees (the Financial Guarantees) of Manitoulin USD Ltd., Algonquin 2022-4 with respect to a portfolio of primarily U.S. and Canadian senior secured and senior unsecured loans originated or managed by the Bank of Montreal (BMO or the Beneficiary; rated AA with a Stable trend by Morningstar DBRS):

-- Senior Tranche confirmed at AAA (sf)
-- Tranche B confirmed at AA (high) (sf)
-- Tranche C upgraded to AA (sf) from A (sf)
-- Tranche D upgraded to BBB (high) (sf) from BBB (low) (sf)

The provisional credit ratings on the Tranche Amounts address the likelihood of a reduction to the respective tranche notional amounts resulting from obligor defaults within the guaranteed portfolio during the period from the Effective Date until the Scheduled Termination Date. For obligors within the guaranteed portfolio, default events are limited to payment default, insolvency, and restructuring events.

The credit ratings on the Tranche Amounts take into consideration the creditworthiness of the reference portfolio only. The credit ratings do not address counterparty risk nor the likelihood of any event of default or termination events under the agreement occurring. BMO bought protection under a similar executed financial guarantee for certain issued notes but has not executed contracts related to the tranche notional amounts.

BMO did not request that Morningstar DBRS assign credit ratings to the Notes to be issued under the executed financial guarantee. The payment of principal and interest (the Guarantee Fee Amount, as defined in the executed financial guarantee referenced above) on the Notes is subject to additional counterparty credit risk associated with the Beneficiary’s ability to pay such amounts. As a result, if Morningstar DBRS were to rate such Notes, even if they are pari passu with a related Tranche Amount, Morningstar DBRS’ credit rating on the Notes may be different than the credit rating assigned to the related Tranche Amount.

Morningstar DBRS expects the credit ratings on the Tranche Amounts to remain provisional until the underlying agreements are executed. BMO may have no intention of executing the Financial Guarantees. Morningstar DBRS will maintain and monitor the provisional credit ratings throughout the life of the transaction or while it continues to receive performance information.

To assess portfolio credit quality, Morningstar DBRS may provide a credit estimate, internal assessment, or ratings mapping of BMO’s internal ratings model. Credit estimates, internal assessments, and ratings mappings are not ratings; rather, they represent an abbreviated analysis, including model-driven or statistical components of default probability for each obligor that is used in assigning a rating to a facility sufficient to assess portfolio credit quality.

The credit rating actions are a result of Morningstar DBRS’ review of the transaction performance and application of the “Global Methodology for Rating CLOs and Corporate CDOs” (the CLO Methodology), including the “Morningstar DBRS CLO Insight Model,” released on October 22, 2023. On November 9, 2023, the credit ratings were placed Under Review with Developing Implications to allow Morningstar DBRS to review the credit ratings using the CLO Methodology. The Scheduled Termination Date is February 1, 2028. The Replenishment Cut-Off Date is August 20, 2025.

In its analysis, Morningstar DBRS considered the following aspects of the transaction:

(1) The Financial Guarantees of Manitoulin USD Ltd., a corporation established under the Canada Business Corporations Act. Manitoulin USD Ltd. is a synthetic risk transfer transaction with BMO as the Beneficiary.
(2) The integrity of the transaction structure and the form and sufficiency of available credit enhancement.
(3) The credit quality of the underlying collateral, subject to the Replenishment Criteria.
(4) The ability of the Tranche Amounts to withstand projected collateral loss rates under various stress scenarios.
(5) The legal structure as well as legal opinions addressing certain matters of the Issuer and the consistency with the Morningstar DBRS “Legal Criteria for U.S. Structured Finance” methodology.
(6) Morningstar DBRS’ assessment of the origination, servicing, and management capabilities of BMO.

The transaction is performing according to the parameters set in the Financial Guarantees. As of January 31, 2024, certain Replenishment Criteria were not met. Morningstar DBRS considered these failures in its analysis. The reference portfolio consists of well-diversified senior unsecured and senior secured corporate loans across various industries and rating levels. The analysis produced satisfactory results, which supported the confirmations and upgrades of the credit ratings on the Tranche Amounts.

Morningstar DBRS analyzed the transaction using its CLO Insight Model, based on certain reference portfolio characteristics, including Eligibility Criteria and Replenishment Criteria, as defined per the Financial Guarantees; and tranche-specific recovery rates, among other credit considerations referenced in the Morningstar DBRS rating methodology “Global Methodology for Rating CLOs and Corporate CDOs (October 22, 2023),”

The mapping was completed in accordance with Morningstar DBRS’ Mapping Financial Institution Internal Ratings to Morningstar DBRS Ratings for Global Structured Credit Transactions (February 17, 2023; methodology.

The transaction assumptions consider Morningstar DBRS’ baseline macroeconomic scenarios for rated sovereign economies, available in its commentary “Baseline Macroeconomic Scenarios for Rated Sovereigns: December 2023 Update,” published on December 19, 2023 ( These baseline macroeconomic scenarios replace Morningstar DBRS’ moderate and adverse pandemic scenarios, which were first published in April 2020.

For more information regarding Morningstar DBRS’ additional adjustment for select industries related to COVID-19, please see its May 18, 2020, commentary, “CLO Risk Exposure to the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)” at

There were no Environmental/Social/Governance factor(s) that had a significant or relevant effect on the credit analysis.

A description of how Morningstar DBRS considers ESG factors within the Morningstar DBRS analytical framework can be found in the Morningstar DBRS Criteria: Approach to Environmental, Social, and Governance Risk Factors in Credit Ratings (23 January 2024),-social,-and-governance-risk-factors-in-credit-ratings.

All figures are in US dollars unless otherwise noted.

The principal methodologies applicable to the credit ratings are the Global Methodology for Rating CLOs and Corporate CDOs and the CLO Insight Model version (October 22, 2023), and Mapping Financial Institution Internal Ratings to Morningstar DBRS Ratings for Global Structured Credit Transactions (February 17, 2023;

Other methodologies referenced in this transaction are listed at the end of this press release.

The credit rating was initiated at the request of the rated entity.

The rated entity or its related entities did participate in the credit rating process for this credit rating action.

Morningstar DBRS had access to the accounts, management and other relevant internal documents of the rated entity or its related entities in connection with this credit rating action.

This is a solicited credit rating.

Please, see the related appendix for additional information regarding the sensitivity of assumptions used in the credit rating process.

These credit ratings are endorsed by DBRS Ratings Limited for use in the United Kingdom, and by DBRS Ratings GmbH for use in the European Union, respectively. The following additional regulatory disclosures apply to endorsed credit ratings:

Each of the principal asset class methodologies employed in the analysis addressed one or more particular risks or aspects of the credit rating and were factored into the credit rating decision. Specifically, for the recovery rate, Morningstar DBRS applied the senior secured and senior unsecured recovery rates defined in its Global Methodology for Rating CLOs and Corporate CDOs (October 22, 2023). Morningstar DBRS applies different recovery rates depending on the recovery tier and seniority.

Morningstar DBRS used its CLO Insight Model to determine expected default rates for the portfolio at each rating level. To determine the credit risk of each underlying reference obligation, Morningstar DBRS relied on either public ratings or a ratings mapping to Morningstar DBRS ratings of BMO’s internal ratings models. The mapping was completed in accordance with Morningstar DBRS’ Mapping Financial Institution Internal Ratings to Morningstar DBRS Ratings for Global Structured Credit Transactions (February 17, 2023) methodology.

The last credit rating action on this issuer took place on November 09, 2023, when Morningstar DBRS placed the provisional credit ratings on the Tranche Amounts Under Review with Developing Implications.

For further information on Morningstar DBRS historical default rates published by the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) in a central repository, see: For further information on Morningstar DBRS historical default rates published by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in a central repository, see

Lead Analyst: Oxana Rhybak, Vice President, Sector Lead,
Rating Committee Chair: Jerry van Koolbergen, Managing Director,
Initial Rating Date: November 1, 2022

DBRS, Inc.
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New York, NY 10005 USA
Tel. +1 212 806-3277

The credit rating methodologies used in the analysis of this transaction can be found at:

-- Interest Rate Stresses for U.S. Structured Finance Transactions (June 9. 2023)
-- Operational Risk Assessment for CLOs and CDOs (September 14, 2023)
-- Legal Criteria for U.S. Structured Finance (December 7, 2023)

For more information on this credit or on this industry, visit or contact us at [email protected].